Implantable insulin pump -
A small pump placed inside of the body that delivers insulin in response to commands from a hand-held device called a programmer.
The loss of a man's ability to have an erect penis and to emit semen. Some men may become impotent after having diabetes for a long time because the nerves or blood vessels have become damaged. Sometimes the problem has nothing to do with diabetes and may be treated with counselling.
Infusion set -
Consists of a length of thin plastic tubing (24" or 43" long) with a Luer™-lock connector at one end, and at the other end, a very small cannula that is placed under the skin. It is connected to the insulin pump and used to deliver insulin to the body.
Infusion site -
The place on the body where the infusion set needle is inserted under the skin.
Putting liquid into the body with a needle and syringe. A person with diabetes injects insulin by putting the needle into the tissue under the skin (called subcutaneous). Other ways of giving medicine or nourishment by injection are putting the needle into a vein (intravenous/IV) or putting the needle into a muscle (intramuscular/IM).
Injection site rotation -
Changing the places on the body where a person injects insulin. Changing the injection site keeps lumps or small dents (called lipodystrephies) from forming in the skin. People should, however, try to use the same body area for injections that are given at the same time each day; for example, always using the stomach for the morning injection or an arm for the evening injection. Using the same body area for these routine injections lessens the possibility of changes in the timing and action of insulin.
Injection sites -
Places on the body where people can inject insulin most easily. These are just above and below the waist, except the area right around the navel (a 2-inch circle) and the upper area of the buttock, just behind the hip bone. The front of the thigh, midway to the outer side, 4 inches below the top of the thigh to 4 inches above the knee can be used for night-time injection. These areas can vary with the size of the person.
A hormone produced by the beta cells in the pancreas. Insulin is needed by the body to regulate the production and use of glucose.
Insulin antagonist -
Insulin antagonist – is something that opposes or fights the action of insulin. Insulin lowers the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood, whereas glucagon raises it; therefore, glucagon is an antagonist of insulin.
Insulin binding -
When insulin attaches itself to something else. This can occur in two ways. First, when a cell needs energy, insulin can bind with the outer part of the cell. The cell then can bring glucose (sugar) inside and use it for energy. With the help of insulin, the cell can do its work very well and very quickly. But sometimes the body acts against itself. In this second case, the insulin binds with the proteins that are supposed to protect the body from outside substances (antibodies). If the insulin is an injected form of insulin and not made by the body (exogenous), the body sees the insulin as an outside or "foreign" substance. When the injected insulin binds with the antibodies, it does not work as well as when it binds directly to the cell.
Insulin pen -
An insulin injection device the size of a pen that includes a needle and holds a vial of insulin. It can be used instead of syringes for giving insulin injections.
Insulin pump -
An insulin pump is a small, battery-powered device that mechanically pumps measured amounts of insulin through an infusion set into the body. THE PUMP IS NOT AUTOMATIC. You program and control it, and you must perform four to six blood glucose tests daily to ensure delivery of appropriate amounts of insulin by the pump.
Insulin reaction -
The level of glucose (sugar) in the blood is too low; also called hypoglycaemia. This occurs when a person with diabetes has injected too much insulin, eaten too little food, or exercised without extra food. The person may feel hungry, nauseated, weak, nervous, shaky, confused, and sweaty. Taking small amounts of sugar, sweet juice, or food with sugar will usually help the person feel better within 10-15 minutes. See also: hypoglycaemia; insulin shock.
Insulin receptors -
Areas on the outer part of a cell that allow the cell to join or bind with insulin that is in the blood. When the cell and insulin bind together, the cell can take glucose (sugar) from the blood and use it for energy.
Insulin resistance -
Many people with noninsulin-dependent diabetes produce enough insulin, but their bodies do not respond to the action of insulin. This may happen because the person is overweight and has too many fat cells, which do not respond well to insulin. Also, as people age, their body cells lose some of the ability to respond to insulin. Insulin resistance is also linked to high blood pressure and high levels of fat in the blood. Another kind of insulin resistance may happen in some people who take insulin injections. They may have to take very high doses of insulin every day (200 units or more) to bring their blood glucose (sugar) down to the normal range. This is also called "insulin insensitivity."
Insulin shock -
A severe condition that occurs when the level of blood glucose (sugar) drops quickly. The signs are shaking, sweating, dizziness, double vision, convulsions, and collapse. Insulin shock may occur when an insulin reaction is not treated quickly enough. See also: Hypoglycaemia; insulin reaction.
Insulin-induced atrophy -
Small dents that form on the skin when a person keeps injecting a needle in the same spot. They are harmless. See also: lipoatrophy; injection site rotation.
Insulin-induced hypertrophy -
Small lumps that form under the skin when a person keeps injecting a needle in the same spot. See also: lipodystrophy; injection site rotation.
A tumour of the beta cells in areas of the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Although not usually cancerous, such tumours may cause the body to make extra insulin and may lead to a blood glucose (sugar) level that is too low.
Intensive management -
A form of treatment for insulin-dependent diabetes in which the main objective is to keep blood glucose (sugar) levels as close to the normal range as possible. The treatment consists of three or more insulin injections a day or use of an insulin pump; four or more blood glucose tests a day; adjustment of insulin, food intake, and activity levels based on blood glucose test results; dietary counselling; and management by a diabetes team. See also: Diabetes Control and Complications Trial; team management.
Intramuscular injection -
Putting a fluid into a muscle with a needle and syringe.
Intravenous injection -
Putting a fluid into a vein with a needle and syringe.
Islet cell transplantation -
Moving the beta (islet) cells from a donor pancreas and putting them into a person whose pancreas has stopped producing insulin. The beta cells make the insulin that the body needs to use glucose (sugar) for energy. Although transplanting islet cells may one-day help people with diabetes, the procedure is still in the research stage.
Islets of Langerhans -
Special groups of cells in the pancreas. They make and secrete hormones that help the body break down and use food. Named after Paul Langerhans, the German scientist who discovered them in 1869, these cells sit in clusters in the pancreas. There are five types of cells in an islet: beta cells, which make insulin; alpha cells, which make glucagon; delta cells, which make somatostaton; and PP cells and D1 cells, about which little is known.